G6691A – ADM Flow Meter

G6691A - ADM Flow Meter Анемометр

Description of the electromagnetic flow meter

Referring to FIG. 1, a pair of exciting coils 3a, 3b are provided outside of
a pipe 2 through which a conductive fluid 1 flows. The exciting coils 3a, 3b
are connected in series to an A.C. source 4. An A.C. magnetic flux generated by
each of said exciting coils 3a, 3b is applied at right angles to the flow line
of a fluid 1 traveling through the pipe 2.

A detection signal appearing between the electrodes 5a, 5b is amplified by an
A.C. type differential amplifier 6, an output from which is impressed through a
resistor 7 on one of the electrodes of a first switch 8 consisting of, for
example, a field effect transistor (hereinafter referred to as “an FET”).

A signal supplied to the first switch 8 is further conducted upon its closure
to an arithmetic operation amplifier 9 and also to the input terminal of an
integration circuit 11 consisting of a capacitor 10 connected between the input
and output terminals of said arithmetic operation amplifier 9.

One end of the resistor 13 is grounded and the other end thereof is connected
to one end of a phase shifter 16 consisting of a resistor 14 and capacitor 15
and also to one end of an A.C.-D.C. converting circuit 19 consisting of a diode
17 and capacitor 18. An output from the phase shifter 16 is supplied to one
positive input terminal of a comparator 21 included in a first
switch-controlling circuit 20.

Since the other negative input terminal of the comparator 21 is grounded, an
output from the phase shifter 16 is conducted to a switch-driving circuit 22
and also to an inverter 24 of a second switch-controlling circuit 23, each time
said output is brought to a negative level. The phase shifter 16 is used to
attain a coincidence between an output from the A.C. type differential
amplifier 6, namely, the phase of a signal detecting the flow rate of a fluid
and the phase of a signal supplied to said one positive input terminal of the
comparator 21.

Accordingly, an output from the switch-driving circuit 22 is supplied to the
first switch 8, namely, the gate electrode of the FET 8 as a switch-controlling
signal, each time the polarity of a detection signal is turned negative, so as
to close first switch 8. Therefore, the integration circuit 11 is supplied with
a signal representing the negative half period of the detection signal.

An output from the integration circuit 11 is delivered to one positive input
terminal of a comparator 25, the other negative input terminal of which is
grounded. Thus, the comparator generates an output, when an output from the
integration circuit 11 has a higher level than zero. The output terminal of the
comparator 25 is connected to one input terminal of the NAND gate 26 of the
second switch-controlling circuit 23, the other input terminal of said NAND
gate 26 being supplied with an output from the inverter 24.

An output from the NAND gate 26 is delivered through an inverter 27 to the
input terminal of a switch-driving circuit 28. An output from the
switch-driving circuit 28 is supplied as a switch-controlling signal to the
gate electrode of an FET constituting a second switch 29 and also to the gate
electrode of an FET used as a third switch 30.

The second switch 29 is supplied through a resistor 31 with an output from the
A.C.-D.C. converting circuit 19. A D.C. signal of negative polarity from said
converting circuit 19 is further conducted through the second switch 29 to the
input terminal of the integration circuit 11. Since the diode 17 has the
indicated polarity, a detection signal from the first switch 8 and a signal
from the second switch 29 have opposite polarities.

Therefore, the integration circuit 11 integrates outputs from the first switch
8 and those from the second switch 29 in opposite directions by turns.

One electrode of the third switch 30 is connected to a terminal 33 impressed
with a referential voltage Es and the other electrode of said third
switch 30 is connected to the input terminal of a smoothing circuit 36.
Referential numeral 37 denotes the output terminal of the subject flow
meter.

There will now be described by reference to FIG. 2 the operation of an A.C.
electromagnetic flow meter of FIG. 1. A detection signal appearing between the
signal-detecting electrodes 5a, 5b and supplied to the first switch 8 through
the amplifier 6 and resistor 7 has a sine wave form shown in, for example, FIG.
2 (a).

This detection signal contains a noise component shifted 90° in phase from the
detection signal as illustrated in FIG. 2 (b). Thus, a composite signal
consisting of said detection signal and noise presents a wave form indicated in
FIG. 2 (c). Namely, an input e to the A.C. type differential amplifier 6 may be
expressed by the following formula:

ADM Flow Meter

where: B = density of a magnetic flux applied to a fluid 1

D = inner diameter of a pipe 2

v = velocity of a fluid passing through the pipe 2

En = amplitude of a noise shifted 90° in phase

An output E1 amplified by the differential amplifier 6 is the one
where only portions represented by the constant terms D and En are
amplified. With said constant terms D and En denoted by
k1 and k2 respectively, the output E1 may be
expressed as follows:

ADM Flow Meter

Since an output M from the phase shifter 16 has the same phase as the wave form
of a detection signal shown in FIG. 2 (a), an output from the comparator 21
also has the same phase as indicated in FIG. 2 (f), causing the first switch 8
to be rendered conducting and nonconducting by turns as illustrated in FIG. 2
(d).

Namely, the FET 8 is turned on only when the signal E1 has a
negative level and turned off only when said signal E1 has a
positive level. Thus a detection signal continues to be supplied to the
integration circuit 11 through the first switch 8, while the phase of FIG. 2
(a) is shifted, for example, from 0 to π.

As apparent from FIG. 2 (a), the detection signals have a negative level for a
period from 0 to π and are effectively
integrated by the integration circuit 11. Since, however, the 90°-shifted
noise has a negative level for a period from 0 to π/2 and a positive
level for a period from π/2 to π, the result of
integration carried out for a period from 0 to π has a value of
zero.

This means that the 90°-shifted noise is effectively suppressed by the
integration circuit 11. An output E2 from the integration circuit 11
may therefore be expressed by the following equation:

ADM Flow Meter

where: CR = time constant of integration undertaken by the integration circuit
11

T = a period from 0 to π

Thus, the integration circuit 11 continues to integrate outputs from the first
switch 8 in the positive direction as shown in FIG. 2 (g). Since, at this time,
a signal supplied to one input terminal of the comparator 25 has a zero level,
an output from the comparator 25 is brought to a state indicated by a logical
code 1, when an output from the integration circuit 11 turns positive.

This output of 1 has a wave form indicated in FIG. 2 (e). Where, under this
condition, an output M from the phase shifter 16 has its level reduced to zero,
the first switch 8 is rendered nonconducting and an output from the comparator
21 is brought to the state of a logical code 0. Said output of 0 is inverted to
a signal of 1 (FIG. 2 (f)) by the inverter 24.

This inverted output of 1 from the inverter 24 is supplied to the NAND gate 26
together with an output of 1 from the comparator 25. The NAND gate 26 delivers
an output of 0 to the inverter 27, which in turn supplies an output of 1 to the
switch-driving circuit 28. Upon receipt of an input of 1, the switch-driving
circuit 28 sends a switch-driving signal to the second and third switches 29,
30 so as to close them.

At the point of time π, an output E 3 from
the A.C.-D.C. converting circuit 19 bearing the wave form of FIG. 2 (h) is
supplied to the integration circuit 11 through the second switch 29 and
inverter 32. An output from the integration circuit 11 is linearly attenuated,
as shown in FIG. 2 (g), in the negative direction down to a zero level during a
period of T1.

Where an output from the integration circuit 11 has its level reduced to zero,
then an output from the comparator is brought to the state of 0 as indicated in
FIG. 2 (e). On the other hand, an output from the inverter 24 maintains the
state of 1 as shown in FIG. 2 (f). Consequently, an output from the NAND gate
26 is changed to 1 indicated in FIG. 2 (h), causing the switch-driving circuit
28 to be reset by a 0 output from the inverter 27 and the second and third
switches to be turned off.

FIG. 2 (i) presents the wave form of a signal obtained on the output side of
the third switch 30.

To explain the above-mentioned operation by means of equations, an output
E3 from the A.C.-D.C. converting circuit 19 bears a proportion only
to exciting current or the density B of a magnetic flux. With k3
taken to be a constant, therefore, said output E3 may be expressed
as follows:

ADM Flow Meter

now let T1 of FIG. 2 (g) represent the period required for an output
E2 from the integration circuit 11 to have its level reduced to zero
after the second switch 29 is closed at the point of time π. Then the following
equation results:

ADM Flow Meter

Therefore, the following equation is derived from the equations (3), (4) and
(5):

ADM Flow Meter

where k4 is a constant. As apparent from the above equation (6),
T1 is unrelated to the density B of a magnetic flux. Since T is
constant, T1 denotes a value only proportional to the velocity v of
the fluid 1 running through the pipe 2. Therefore, the ratio of T1
to T always maintains a value only proportional to the velocity v of the fluid
1.

Since the third switch 30 is rendered conducting for the same period of
T1 (FIG. 2 (i)) as the second switch 29, a D.C. voltage obtained
from the output terminal 37 of the flow meter by smoothing the referential
voltage Es in the smoothing circiut 36 also bears proportion only to
the velocity v of the fluid 1, thereby providing an analogue signal
representing the accurate flow rate of the fluid 1 free from the 90° shifted
noise and variations in the density B of a magnetic flux.

Since the aforesaid equation (6) does not include the constants C and R
associated with the elements of the integration circuit 11, it is possible to
avoid errors in measuring the flow rate of a fluid 1 which might otherwise
arise from a characteristic variations of the contents C and R and of
amplifiers, etc. caused by the variations of the ambient temperature and
secular change.

Since, as mentioned above, the flow meter of this design indicates its output
essentially in the form of time T or time ratio T1 /T, said flow
meter can show the flow rate of a fluid 1 not only in the form of an analogue
output using a smoothing circuit 36 as in the embodiment of FIG. 1, but also in
the form of a digital output.

Namely, an output from the switch-driving circuit 28 is used as a gate signal
and clock pulses having a number corresponding to a period of T1 are
divided in frequency by a frequency divider 42. Thereafter, the frequency
divided clock pulses are supplied to a proper counter 43.

Thus, the flow rate of a fluid 1 can be easily indicated by digital signals.
The accumulated value of the output pulses is proportional to the accumulated
amount of fluid flowing in the flow meter.

Further, if the switch-driving circuit 28 and switch 30 of FIG. 1 are
connected, though not shown, by a known photocoupler consisting of, for
example, a light emitting diode and phototransistor, then electric insulation
can be effected between the flow meter and an output indicator. This
arrangement offers the advantage of preventing errors in measuring the flow
rate of a fluid, particularly in case the flow meter and output indicator are
remotely separated from each other.

Since the time-constant of the A.C.-D.C. converting circuit 19 of FIG. 1 is
very large, one cannot obtain the output voltage of the circuit 19 in
proportion to the voltage of the power supply in case of a rapid variation of
the power supply voltage. This causes an error in measuring the flow rate of
the fluid.

Figure 4 : Shows the wave forms of signals by
way of illustrating the operation of the flow meter of fig. 4
for the electromagnetic flow meter
ADM Flow Meter

View larger image <span rel=”thumbnail” title=”Figure 4 : Shows the wave forms of signals by way of illustrating the operation of the flow meter of fig. 4
for the electromagnetic flow meter” onclick=”return FIX.track(this);”>here.

FIG. 4 shows a circuit arrangement of a flow meter according to another
embodiment of this design which has been improved from the flow meter of FIG. 1
to elevate the precision of measurement in view of the above drawbacks of
Embodiment of FIG. 1. The parts of FIG. 4 which are the same as those of FIG. 1
are denoted by the same numerals and description thereof is omitted.

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Now let it be assumed that an output from the differential amplifier 6 is a
sine wave signal bearing the phase of FIG. 5 (a). Then, an output from the
comparator 21 is a positive pulse having, as shown in FIG. 5 (b), a width
corresponding to the negative period of an output from the differential
amplifier 6.

This positive pulse is supplied from the comparator 21 to the switch-driving
circuits 22a, 22b, inverter 50 and a switch-driving circuit 51 at the same
time. An output from the inverter 50 takes the form of a pulse signal shown in
FIG. 5 (c) which is of the opposite polarity to an output from the comparator
21.

Where a switch-driving signal is supplied from the comparator 21 to the
switch-driving circuit 22a, then the first switch 8 is closed. As the result,
outputs from the differential amplifier 6 are supplied to the integrator 11 for
integration for a period, for example, from 0 to π. Thus an output
from the integrator 11 increases as shown in FIG. 5 (d) for a period from 0 to
π.

On the other hand, the output terminal of the phase shifter 16 is connected
through a resistor 52 and FET switch 53 to the negative side terminal of an
operational amplifier 54 constituting the A.C.-D.C. converting circuit 19,
causing the switch-driving circuit 22b to be operated by an output from the
comparator 21 for a period from 0 to π.

As the result, the FET switch 53 is closed and an output from the phase shifter
16 is conducted to the operational amplifier 54. Accordingly, the comparator 54
generates an output progressively increasing from the point of time 0 to the
point of time π
as shown in FIG. 5 (e). This increased output is delivered to the second switch
29 through the resistor 31.

A capacitor 55 and FET switch 56 are connected parallel between the input and
output terminals of the operational amplifier 54. The FET 56 has its operation
controlled by a signal from the switch-driving circuit 57.

An output from the integration circuit 11 is supplied to the comparator 25,
which in turn produces an output having a fixed amplitude as shown in FIG. 5
(f) which increases according to an output from the integration circuit 11
bearing the wave form indicated in FIG. 5 (d). Said output from the comparator
25 is conducted to the NAND gate 26 together with an output from the inverter
50 having the wave form of FIG. 5 (c).

The NAND gate 26 is supplied with two input signals indicated by logical codes
of 1 and 0 for a period from 0 to π. Accordingly, an
output from the NAND gate 26 takes the form of 1, and an output from the
inverter 27 maintains the form of 0 as shown in FIG. 5 (g) for a period from 0
to π.

An output from the NAND gate 26 is delivered to the NAND gate 58 together with
a signal supplied to one input terminal of said NAND gate 26. Since input
signals to the NAND gate 58 maintain the forms of 0 and 1 respectively for a
period from 0 to π, an output from the
NAND gate 58 is brought to the state of 1.

Therefore, an output from the inverter 59 presents the state of 0 as shown in
FIG. 5 (h). Since said output from the inverter 59 is delivered to the
switch-driving circuit 57, the FET switch 56 remains open for a period from 0
to π, causing
an output from the operational amplifier 54 to be charged in the capacitor
55.

Further, the switch-driving circuit 51 is operated by an output from the
comparator 21 for a period from 0 to π. Accordingly, an
FET switch 60 is closed and the referential voltage Es is impressed
on the negative side input terminal of an integration circuit 61.

Since a driving signal is not supplied from the inverter 59 to a switch-driving
circuit 62, an FET switch 63 is opened and the integration circuit 61
integrates E s signals supplied from the FET switch 60 and produces an output
progressively increasing from the point of time 0 to the point of time π as shown in FIG. 5
(i).

An output from the integration circuit 61 is delivered to the FET switch 30,
but the switch-driving circuit 28b is not supplied with a driving signal.
Therefore, the output terminal 37 of the flow meter does not generate an
output. Since a signal supplied to one input terminal of the NAND gate 41
remains in the state of 0, said gate 41 is not opened, nor a digital output
terminal 64 is supplied with a clock pulse from the clock pulse generator
40.

During a period from 0 to π, a 90°-shifted
noise contained in an output from the differential amplifier 6 is of course
effectively suppressed in the integration circuit 11 as in the case of FIG.
1.

When an output from the differential amplifier 6 has its phase shifted to π, an output from the
comparator 21 has its level brought to zero in synchronization with said output
from the differential amplifier 6. As the result, the FET switches 8, 53, 60
are opened through the switch-driving circuits 22a, 22b, 51, causing an output
from the inverter 50 to take the form of 1 as shown in FIG. 5 (c) for a period
from π to
2π.

A 1 output from the inverter 50 is conducted to the NAND gate 26. Since, at
this time, an output from the comparator 25 maintains the form of 1 as
indicated in FIG. 5 (f), an output from the NAND gate 26 is brought to the
state of 0, causing the switch-driving circuit 28a to be actuated by a 1 output
from the inverter 27.

The FET switch 29 is closed by an output from the switch-driving circuit 28a
and the integration circuit 54 delivers an output bearing the wave form of FIG.
5 (e) to the integration circuit 11. An output from the integration circuit 19
has an opposite polarity to an output from the differential amplifier 6.

Therefore, the integration circuit 11 carries out integration in the opposite
direction starting from the point of time π. An output from
said integration circuit 11 is linearly attenuated from the point of time π as shown in FIG. 5
(d) and falls to a zero level after a period of T1.

Since, during the period of T1, an output from the inverter 27 takes
the form of 1 as shown in FIG. 5 (g), and an output from the inverter 59 is
brought to the state of 0 as indicated in FIG. 5 (h), an output from the
integrator 61 still maintains a value attained at the point of time π through the opening
of the switch 63, namely, presents the wave form of FIG. 5 (i).

the switch-driving circuit 28b is actuated to close the switch 30 and an output
bearing the wave form of FIG. 5 (j) appears on the output side of said switch
30. At this time, a 1 output from the inverter 27 opens the NAND gate 41,
causing clock pulses from the clock pulse generator 40 as shown in FIG. 5 (k)
to appear at the digital output terminal 64 of the flow meter.

When, therefore, clock pulses appearing at said digital output terminal 64 are
counted as in the case of FIG. 3, then the flow rate of a fluid can be
digitally indicated.

Where an output from the integration circuit 11 falls to zero in a period of
T1 after the point of time π, then an output
from the comparator 25 is brought to the state of 0, and an output from the
NAND gate 26 takes the form of 1. As the result, an output from the NAND gate
58 presents the state of 0 and an output from the inverter 59 which is supplied
to the switch-driving circuit 57 is turned to the state of 1, causing the FET
switch 56 to be closed.

Accordingly, short circuiting takes place across the input and output terminals
of the integration circuit 54, an output from which rapidly falls to zero as
shown in FIG. 5 (e).

An output from the inverter 27 is brought to the state of 0 as shown in FIG. 5
(g), and the switches 29, 30 are opened, causing outputs from the digital
output terminal 64 and the analogue output terminal 37 to fall to zero.

Where an output from the differential amplifier 6 has its phase shifted to
2π, then an
output from the comparator 21 appears again. At this time an output from the
inverter 50 takes the form of 0 and an output from the inverter 59 is brought
back to the state of 0. Operation during a period from 2π to 4π is the same as
during a period from 0 to 2π.

The larger the amount of a fluid 1 running through the pipe 2, the more
increased an output from the diferential amplifier 6. As the result, the
voltage integrated by the integration circuit 11 during a period from 0 to
π or from
2π to 3π grows higher. Since
an output from the integration circuit 54 has a constant voltage, the period of
T1 in which an amount of outputs is integrated in the opposite
direction is lengthened to the same extent as that to which an amount of
outputs integrated in the normal direction increases.

Thus the flow rate of a fluid 1 passing through the pipe 2 bears a proportional
relationship with the period T1 of reverse integration. Consequently
an analogue output from the output terminal 37 of the flow meter or a digital
output from its output terminal 64 indicates a magnitude proportional to the
flow rate of a fluid 1 traveling through the pipe 2.

Figure 6 : Indicates the wave forms of signals
by way of illustrating the operation of the flow meter of fig. 6
for the electromagnetic flow meter
ADM Flow Meter

FIG. 6 is a circuit diagram of a flow meter according to still another
embodiment of this design. There will now be described the operation of this
embodiment by reference to FIG. 7 showing the wave forms of signals appearing
in said embodiment. An output signal from the differential amplifier 6 which
has detected the flow rate of a fluid 1 conducted through the pipe 2 has a sine
wave as shown in FIG. 7 (a).

During a period from 0 to π in which there
appears a signal detecting the flow rate, an output from the comparator 21
takes the form of 0 as shown in FIG. 7 (b) and consequently an output from the
inverter 50 is brought to the state of 1 as shown in FIG. 7 (c). An output from
the inverter 50 is supplied to one input terminal of the NAND gate 26 and also
to a delay circuit 70.

This delay circuit 70 produces an output in a time t after the delay circuit 70
is supplied with an output from the inverter 50. An output from said delay
circuit 70 is conducted to the switch-driving circuits 57, 71 and inverter 72.
The FET switches 56, 73 are rendered conducting by the switch-driving circuits
57, 71 for a period from 0 to π.

Therefore, outputs x and y from the integration circuits 11, 54 are reduced to
zero as shown in FIGS. 7 (e) and (f).

When an output from the differential amplifier 6 has its phase shifted to π, then an output
from the comparator 21 takes the form of 1 as indicated in FIG. 7 (b), and in
consequence outputs from the inverter 50 and delay circuit 70 are brought to
the state of 0 as shown in FIGS. 7 (c) and (d).

As the result, the switch-driving circuits 57, 71 are deenergized to open the
switches 56, 73, and the integration circuits 11, 54 commence integration.
Since an output from the comparator 21 maintains the form of 1 as indicated in
FIG. 7 (b) for a period from π to 2π, the switches 8, 53
are closed by the switch-driving circuits 22a, 22b.

Outputs from the differential amplifier 6 and phase shifter 16 are integrated,
as shown in FIGS. 7 (e) and 7 (f) by the integration circuits 11, 54
respectively. These integrated outputs x, y are supplied to a
multiplier-divider 74 together with a referential voltage Es
(referred to as z throughout the embodiment of FIG. 6).

The multiplier-divider 74 carries out the arithmetical operation of said three
inputs x, y and z by the formula of x. z/y.

Where an output from the differential amplifier 6 which has detected the flow
rate of a fluid 1 has its phase shifted to 2π, then an output
from the comparator 21 takes the form of 0 and an output from the inverter 50
is brought to the state of 1. Under this condition, the switches 8, 53 remain
open and the switches 56, 73 are also left open.

Accordingly, an output from the integration circuit 11 maintains a value
attained when the phase is shifted to 2π as shown in FIGS. 7
(e) and (f). On the other hand, an output from the delay circuit 70 maintains
the state of 0 and an output from the inverter 50 is kept in the state of 1,
until a delay time T1 passes from the point of time 2π.

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Therefore, an input to the NAND gate 26 takes the form of “1,1” and an output
therefrom presents the state of 0. As the result, a driving signal bearing the
wave form of FIG. 7 (g) is supplied to the switch-driving circuit 28b to open
the switch 30. An output from the multiplier-divider 74 bearing the wave form
of FIG. 7 (b) appears on the output side of the switch 30.

This output passes through the smoothing circuit 34 and appears at the output
terminal 37 of the flow meter as an analogue signal indicating the flow rate of
a fluid 1 traveling through the pipe 2.

Throughout the foregoing embodiments, integration in the integration circuit 11
was carried out once for each period of an output voltage from the amplifier 6.
However, this design is not limited to such arrangement, but may be so designed
as to effect integration in said integration circuit 11 once, for example, for
every two periods of an output voltage from the amplifier 6.

Figure 8 : Presents the wave forms of signals
by way of illustrating the operation of the flow meter of fig. 8
for the electromagnetic flow meter
ADM Flow Meter

View larger image <span rel=”thumbnail” title=”Figure 8 : Presents the wave forms of signals by way of illustrating the operation of the flow meter of fig. 8
for the electromagnetic flow meter” onclick=”return FIX.track(this);”>here.

FIG. 8 exemplifies the latter case. The parts of FIG. 8 the same as those of
FIG. 4 are denoted by the same numerals. Referring to FIG. 8, the output
terminal of the comparator 21 is connected to the terminal T of a binary
flip-flop circuit 81, one of the input terminals of an AND gate 82 and the
input terminal of an inverter 83.

The other input terminal of the AND gate 86 is connected to the output terminal
of the clock generator 40. The output terminal of the AND gate 86 is connected
to the output terminal of the digital signal output terminal 64.

One end of the secondary winding of the transformer 12 is directly connected to
the minus input terminal of a comparator 87, whose plus input terminal is
grounded. The output terminal of the comparator 87 is connected to the terminal
T of a binary flip-flop circuit and one of the input terminals of an AND gate
90.

The other input terminal of the AND gate is connected to the output terminal Q
of a flip-flop circuit 88. The output terminal of the AND gate 90 is connected
to the input terminals of the drivers 22b, 51. The output terminal of an
inverter 89 is connected to one of the input terminals of an AND gate 91.

The output terminal Q of the flip-flop circuit 88 is connected to the other
input terminal of the AND gate 91, whose output terminal is connected to the
input terminals of the drivers 57, 62.

There will now be described by reference to FIG. 9 the operation of a flow
meter according to the embodiment of FIG. 8. Now, let it be assumed that an
output signal es from the amplifier 6 has a substantially sine wave form as
shown in FIG. 9 (a). In this case, it is assumed that the 90°-shifted noise
component is not contained in the signal es.

The signal er is transmitted to the phase shifter 16 to have its phase
equalized with that of the signal es, and then conducted to the plus terminal
of the comparator 21. Accordingly, an output signal TS1 from the
comparator 21 has, as shown in FIG. 9 (c), a positive level synchronizing with
the positive level period of the signal es.

When set by a signal TS1, the flip-flop circuit 81 generates an
output signal TS2 from the output terminal Q. This terminal Q output
signal TS2 is produced, as shown in FIG. 9 (d), at the rise of the
signal TS1, and extinguished at the succeeding rise of said signal
TS1. An output signal TS3 from the AND gate 82 whose
input terminal is supplied with the signals TS1, TS2 is
given forth once, as shown in FIG. 9 (e), for every two periods of the signal
es.

The output signal TS3 is delivered to the driver 22a to render the
FET 8 conducting. Operation of the FET 8 causes the signal es to be supplied to
the integration circuit 11, for example, for a period extending from 0 to π so as to be
integrated. An output signal eIO generated from the integration circuit 11 for
said 0 to π
period has a wave form shown in FIG. 9 (i).

Voltage er induced on the secondary side of the transformer 12 is further
directly delivered to the minus terminal of the comparator 87. An output signal
Tr1 from the comparator 87, therefore, takes, as shown in FIG. 9
(f), the form of a positive pulse in correspondence to the negative half period
of the signal er.

The output terminal Tr1 is supplied to the terminal T of the
flip-flop circuit 88. The output terminals Q, Q thereof give forth signals
Tr2, Tr2 of opposite polarity respectively. The output
signal Tr2 from the terminal Q of the flip-flop circuit 88 is
produced, as shown in FIG. 9 (g), at the rise of one pulse of the signal
Tr1, and extinguished at the rise of the succeeding pulse of said
signal Tr1. The two signals Tr1, Tr2 are
conducted to the AND gate 90, whose output terminal gives forth, as shown in
FIG. 9 (h), a signal Tr3 for every two periods of the signal er.

The signal Tr3 is supplied to the drivers 22b, 51 to put them into
operation. As the result, the FET’s 53, 60 are rendered conducting, the signal
er is supplied to the integration circuit 19 through the resistor 52 and FET
53, and D.C. voltage Es is impressed on the integration circuit 61
through the FET 60.

While the signal Tr3 is being produced, the signal Tr1 is
supplied to the inverter 89, and the output terminal Q of the flip-flop circuit
88 generates a signal Tr2. At this time, the drivers 57, 62 are not
supplied with any signal from the AND gate 91 and the FET’s 56, 63 remain
inoperative.

As the result, the integration circuits 19, 61 are actuated to carry out
integration in the positive direction, as shown in FIGS. 9 (j) and (m), for a
period corresponding to the signal Tr3, giving forth integrated
signals ero, eQ. Where the signal Tr1 is extinguished during the 0
to π period,
the inverter 89 produces a signal of 1.

The AND gate 91 supplies a drive signal to the drivers 57, 62 to render the
FET’s 56, 63 conducting. Output signals ero, eQ from the integration circuits
19, 61 are held at the levels obtained at that time, as shown in FIGS. 9 (j)
and (m).

Where the comparator 21 gives forth an output signal TS1 of 0 when
an output signal es from the amplifier 6 has a phase of π, then the inverter
83 produces an output signal TS1 of 1. Since, at this time, an
output signal TS2 from the output terminal Q of the flip-flop
circuit 81 has a level of 1, the AND gate 84 is opened, and the driver 28 is
driven by an output signal from the AND gate 84.

As the result, the FET 29 is operated and an integrated output signal ero held
by the integration circuit 19 is delivered to the integration circuit 11
through the resistor 31 and FET 29. When the integration circuit 11 which
produces a negative integratd output signal eIO during the 0 to π period is supplied
with a positive signal ero, said integrated output signal eIO rises in the
positive direction as shown in FIG. 9 (i) and is returned to zero level in a
time T1 after the point of time π.

Where the comparator 21 gives forth an output signal TS1 of 0 at the
point of time π, then an output
signal of 1 from the inverter 83 is also delivered to the AND gate 85. Since,
at this time, an output signal CO from the comparator 25 has a level of 1, as
shown in FIG. 9 (k), the AND gate 85 gives forth an output signal TO of 1, as
shown in FIG. 9 (l).

The output signal TO opens the AND gate 86 and actuates the driver 28b. A clock
pulse signal from the clock pulse generator 40 is conducted from the AND gate
86 to the digital output terminal 64. Operation of the driver 28 renders the
FET 30 conducting, causing the signal eQ of FIG. 9 (m) to be supplied to the
smoothing circuit 34 through the FET 30.

At this time, a signal eO is generated from the analogue output terminal 37 via
the smoothing circuit 34.

When an output signal eIO from the integration circuit 11 is brought to zero
level in a time T1, which is proportional to the flow rate, after
the point of time π, then the
comparator 25 gives forth a signal CO of 0 to close the AND gate 85. As the
result, an output signal T from the AND gate 85 is set at a level
of 0 to put the FET 30 out of operation, thereby extinguishing the output
signals from the digital output terminal 64 and analogue output terminal 37
which correspond to the period T1. When the signal Tr1 is
brought to a level of 0 during the period of 2π to 3π, the AND gate 90 is
closed to render the FET’s 53, 60 inoperative, with the result that the signals
er, Es cease to be supplied to the integration circuits 19, 61, and
that the output signals ero, eQ are brought to zero level, as shown in FIGS.

9 (j) and (m).

In the succeeding period of 3π to 4π, the signals
Tr3, ero, eQ rise all alike, and an integrated output signal eIO is
again obtained at the point of time 4π. The foregoing
operation is repeated thereafter.

Figure 10 : Presents the wave forms of signals
by way of illustrating the operation of the flow meter of fig. 1
for the electromagnetic flow meter
ADM Flow Meter

View larger image <span rel=”thumbnail” title=”Figure 10 : Presents the wave forms of signals by way of illustrating the operation of the flow meter of fig. 1
for the electromagnetic flow meter” onclick=”return FIX.track(this);”>here.

Referring to FIG. 10, the output terminal of the AND gate 82 is connected to
the input terminals of the driver 22a and inverter 95. The output terminal of
the inverter 95 is connected to one of the input terminals of the AND gate 96,
the other input terminal of which is connected to the Q output terminal of the
binary flip-flop circuit 81.

The output terminal of the AND gate 96 is connected to the input terminal of
the driver 28b. The Q output terminal of the flip-flop circuit 81 is connected
to one of the input terminals of the AND gate 84, the other input terminal of
which is connected to the output terminal of the comparator 21 through the
inverter 83.

The output terminal of the driver 28b is connected to the gate electrode of the
sampling FET 30 included in a sampled value holder 38. One of the electrode
terminals of the sampling FET 30 is connected to the plus terminal of an
operational amplifier 39, the output terminal of which is connected to the
analogue signal output terminal 37.

There will now be described by reference to FIG. 11 the operation of the
embodiment of FIG. 10. The signals es, er, TS1, TS2,
TS3, Tr1,Tr2, Tr3 are the same as
those of FIG. 8, as seen from FIGS. 11 (a) to 11 (h). Where the AND gate 90
generates a signal Tr3 for a length of time extending between the
point of time at which, for example, the signal es has a phase angle of –π and that at which
said signal es has a phase angle of 0, then the FET 53 is rendered conducting
and the integration circuit 19 generates a signal ero as shown in FIG.

11 (j). This signal ero is supplied to the multiplier-divider 74 as a Y signal.
Since at this time, the output signal eIO from the integration circuit 11 which
is supplied as an X signal to said multiplier-divider 74 has a level of zero,
an output signal eQ from said multiplier-divider 74 continues to have a zero
level as shown in FIG.

11 (k). When the voltage signal es has a phase angle of 0, then the AND gate 82
gives forth a signal TS3 to actuate the driver 22a, and the voltage
signal es is conducted to the integration circuit 11 so as to be integrated,
and an output signal eIO from the integration circuit 11 increases in the
negative direction as shown in FIG.

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11 (i). While a signal Tr3 maintains a level of 0 for the period in
which the phase angle of said signal Tr3 changes from 0 to π, then the FET 53 is
rendered inoperative, and the output signal ero from the integration circuit 19
thereafter maintains the level obtained at that time.

The multiplier-divider 74 which is supplied with three input signals X, Y, Z
during the above-mentioned period extending between the phase angles 0 and
π generates a
progressively increasing signal eQ as shown in FIG. 11 (k).

When the voltage signal es has a phase angle of π, the comparator 21
produces a signal TS1 of 0, and the inverter 83 gives forth a signal
of 1. Since, at this time, a Q output signal from the flip-flop circuit 81 has
a level of 1, the AND gate 84 is opened, causing a driving signal to be
supplied therefrom to the FET 73 through the driver 28.

As the result, the FET 73 is actuated and the output signal eIO from the
integration circuit thereafter maintains the level obtained at that time as
shown in FIG. 11 (i). When said output signal eIO is thus held at a certain
level, then the three input signals X, Y, Z supplied to the multiplier-divider
74 and in consequence an output signal eQ therefrom also have a fixed level as
shown in FIG.

11 (k). When the output signal eQ has a fixed level and the signal
TS3 has its level shifted to 0, then the AND gate 96 is opened.
Accordingly, the FET 30 is operated by the driver 28b, causing the output
signal eQ from the multiplier-divider 74 to be supplied to the sampled value
holder 38.

Accordingly, the output terminal 37 of the operational amplifier 39 gives fort
a signal eo whose sampled level value has been held as shown in FIG. 11 (l).
This signal eo continues to be produced until the AND gate 96 is closed upon
the shifting of the level of the signal TS2 to 0.

Namely, said signal eo appears for a length of time corresponding to half the
period of the output voltage signal es from the amplifier 6 which denotes a
measured flow rate. When the output signal Tr1 from the comparator
87 has its level brought to 0 during a period extending between the phase
angles 2π and
3π and in
consequence the AND gate 90 is closed, then the signal ero also has its level
set at 0.

The multiplier-divider 74 now supplied with a Y signal (ero) of 0 generates an
output signal eQ also of 0. When the signal TS1 has its level
brought to 0 at the point of time at which said signal TS1 has a
phase angle of 3π, then the FET 8 is
rendered inoperative and the integration circuit 11 generates a signal eIO of
0.

The integration circuit 11 thereafter repeats the above-mentioned cycle of
operation with a length of time extending between the phase angle points –π and 3π taken as one
period.

Further, if the sample-hold time is properly set shorter than that of one shown
in FIG. 11 (l), the output of this flow meter will be obtained within one cycle
of the signal er.

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Summary of the electromagnetic flow meter

An A.C. electromagnetic flow meter is so designed as to apply an A.C.
magnetic flux to a fluid passing through a pipe and detecting signals
corresponding to the amount of said fluid running through the pipe per unit
time. In this case, however, an A.C. magnetic flux applied to a fluid varies
with the voltage of a power source, giving rise to errors in measuring the flow
rate of a fluid.

To eliminate such errors, it may be contemplated to connect, for example, a
transformer in series to a device for applying an A.C. magnetic flux to a fluid
to draw out an A.C. voltage proportional to said A.C. magnetic flux and
dividing a signal representing the flow rate of the fluid by said A.C.
voltage.

This process can indeed save a signal denoting said flow rate from the effect
of fluctuation in the voltage of a power source. However, additional provision
of such a division circuit for a flow meter unavoidably renders the entire
arrangement complicated and results in the high cost of a flow meter device.

Moreover, a noise signal of a phase shifted 90° from that of a power source
voltage caused by electromagnetic coupling in the flow meter is included in the
detecting signal in addition to the signal proportional to flow rate. This
90°-shifted noise has an amplitude comparable with that of the source voltage
and constitutes a significant factor in generating errors of detection.

To avoid said 90°-shifted noise, it may be contemplated to rectify a detection
signal using, for example, a synchronous rectifier. However, this also leads to
the complicated arrangement and high cost of a flow meter as a whole. In
addition, the circuit elements included in the prior art A.C. electromagnetic
flow meter whose characteristics vary with ambient temperature also exert a
very disadvantageous effect on the precision with which the flow rate of a
fluid passing through a pipe should be determined.

It is accordingly the object of this design to provide a high precision
electromagnetic flow meter capable of effectively eliminating errors resulting
from fluctuations in the voltage of a power source, 90°-shifted noises and
changes in ambient temperature by means of a simple arrangement.

According to an aspect of this design, there is provided an electromagnetic
flow meter which comprises a pipe for conducting a fluid; a magnetic
flux-generating device for applying an A.C. magnetic flux to the fluid running
through the pipe; a detection circuit for detecting a signal denoting a product
arrived at by multiplying together the inner diameter of the pipe, the density
of said magnetic flux and the velocity of the fluid; a device for generating an
A.C. voltage in proportional to said A.C. magnetic flux; a first switch
supplied with said detection signal; a first switch-controlling circuit for
closing said switch for at least a positive or negative half period of the A.C.
voltage thus generated; an A.C.-D.C. converting circuit for changing the A.C.
voltage to a D.C. voltage; a second switch supplied with an output from said
A.C.-D.C. converting circuit; means for reversing the polarity of an output
from the second switch from that of the detection signal; an integration
circuit for integrating outputs from the first switch and then integrating
outputs from the second switch; a second switch-controlling circuit for closing
the second switch after the positive or negative half period and opening said
second switch when the integrated outputs reach a referential level; and an
output device for producing an output indicating the flow rate of a fluid
corresponding to the period in which outputs from the A.C.-D.C. converting
circuit are integrated, for each operating cycle of the integration circuit.

Исходный код программы (скетча)

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/*

YF‐ S201 Water Flow Sensor

Water Flow Sensor output processed to read in litres/hour

Adaptation Courtesy: hobbytronics.co.uk

*/

volatileintflow_frequency;// с помощью этой переменной мы будем подсчитывать импульсы от датчика расходы воды

// Calculated litres/hour

floatvol=0.0,l_minute;

unsignedcharflowsensor=2;// Sensor Input

unsignedlongcurrentTime;

unsignedlongcloopTime;

#include <LiquidCrystal.h>

LiquidCrystallcd(12,11,5,4,3,9);

voidflow()// функция обработки прерывания

{

   flow_frequency ;

}

voidsetup()

{

   pinMode(flowsensor,INPUT);

   digitalWrite(flowsensor,HIGH);// Optional Internal Pull-Up

   Serial.begin(9600);

   lcd.begin(16,2);

   attachInterrupt(digitalPinToInterrupt(flowsensor),flow,RISING);// Setup Interrupt

   lcd.clear();

   lcd.setCursor(,);

   lcd.print(“Water Flow Meter”);

   lcd.setCursor(,1);

   lcd.print(“Circuit Digest”);

   currentTime=millis();

   cloopTime=currentTime;

}

voidloop()

{

   currentTime=millis();

   // каждую секунду рассчитываем и выводим на экран ЖК дисплея скорость потока воды в литрах в минуту

   if(currentTime>=(cloopTime 1000))

   {

    cloopTime=currentTime;// Updates cloopTime

    if(flow_frequency!=){

      // Pulse frequency (Hz) = 7.5Q, Q is flow rate in L/min.

      l_minute=(flow_frequency/7.5);// (Pulse frequency x 60 min) / 7.5Q = flowrate in L/hour

      lcd.clear();

      lcd.setCursor(,);

      lcd.print(“Rate: “);

      lcd.print(l_minute);

      lcd.print(” L/M”);

      l_minute=l_minute/60;

      lcd.setCursor(,1);

      vol=vol l_minute;

      lcd.print(“Vol:”);

      lcd.print(vol);

      lcd.print(” L”);

      flow_frequency=;// сбрасываем счетчик

      Serial.print(l_minute,DEC);// Print litres/hour

      Serial.println(” L/Sec”);

    }

    else{

      Serial.println(” flow rate = 0 “);

      lcd.clear();

      lcd.setCursor(,);

      lcd.print(“Rate: “);

      lcd.print(flow_frequency);

      lcd.print(” L/M”);

      lcd.setCursor(,1);

      lcd.print(“Vol:”);

      lcd.print(vol);

      lcd.print(” L”);

    }

   }

}

Схема проекта

Схема подключения датчика расхода воды к плате Arduino Uno представлена на следующем рисунке.

Соединения между платой Arduino, ЖК дисплеем 16×2 и датчиком расхода воды представлены в следующих таблицах ниже. Потенциометр подключен к контактам 5V и GND, а его средний контакт подключен к контакту V0 ЖК дисплея.

Датчик расхода водыПлата Arduino
красный провод5V
черный проводGND
желтый провод2
ЖК дисплейПлата Arduino
VssGND (ground rail of breadboard)
VDD5V (Positive rail of the breadboard)
V0к потенциометру
RS12
RWGND
E11
D79
D6 to D33 to 5

После сборки проекта на макетной плате у нас получилась конструкция следующего вида:

Полный код программы приведен в конце статьи, здесь же мы кратко рассмотрим его основные фрагменты.

В начале программы необходимо подключить библиотеку для работы с ЖК дисплеем, а также указать плате Arduino, к каким ее контактам подключен ЖК дисплей, в нашем случае это контакты 12, 11, 5, 4, 3, 9. Выходной контакт датчика расходы воды подключен к контакту 2 платы Arduino UNO.

volatileintflow_frequency;// Measures flow sensor pulses

// Calculated litres/hour

floatvol=0.0,l_minute;

unsignedcharflowsensor=2;// Sensor Input

unsignedlongcurrentTime;

unsignedlongcloopTime;

#include <LiquidCrystal.h>

LiquidCrystallcd(12,11,5,4,3,9);

voidflow()// Interrupt function

{

   flow_frequency ;

}

В функции void setup мы зададим режим работы контакта 2 платы Arduino на ввод данных и с помощью функции attachInterrupt сконфигурируем его как контакт, на котором будет происходить обнаружение прерываний. Прерывание на этом контакте будет обнаруживаться при увеличении уровня напряжения на нем.

При каждом таком случае будет вызываться функция обработки прерывания flow, в которой будет происходить инкрементирование переменной flow_frequency. Переменные current time и cloopTime используются для измерения временного промежутка длительностью 1 секунда.

voidsetup()

{

   pinMode(flowsensor,INPUT);

   digitalWrite(flowsensor,HIGH);

   Serial.begin(9600);

   lcd.begin(16,2);

   attachInterrupt(digitalPinToInterrupt(flowsensor),flow,RISING);// Setup Interrupt

   lcd.clear();

   lcd.setCursor(,);

   lcd.print(“Water Flow Meter”);

   lcd.setCursor(,1);

   lcd.print(“Circuit Digest”);

   currentTime=millis();

   cloopTime=currentTime;

}

Далее в функции void loop () условие if(currentTime >= (cloopTime 1000)) гарантирует что код внутри него будет выполняться каждую секунду. Благодаря этому мы можем рассчитать количество импульсов, поступающих с датчика расхода воды за секунду.

Из даташита на датчик расходы воды можно узнать, что частота импульсов в нем умножается на 7.5, поэтому чтобы найти скорость потока воды в литрах в минуту, нам в программе необходимо измеренную частоту импульсов (flow_frequency) разделить на 7.5.

После нахождения скорости потока воды в литрах в минуту мы делим полученную величину на 60 чтобы определить скорость потока воды в литрах в секунду. Для расчета объема прошедшей через датчик воды значение переменной l_minute прибавляется к значению переменной vol каждую секунду.

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voidloop()

{

   currentTime=millis();

   // Every second, calculate and print litres/hour

   if(currentTime>=(cloopTime 1000))

   {

    cloopTime=currentTime;// Updates cloopTime

    if(flow_frequency!=){

      // Pulse frequency (Hz) = 7.5Q, Q is flow rate in L/min.

      l_minute=(flow_frequency/7.5);// (Pulse frequency x 60 min) / 7.5Q = flowrate in L/hour

      lcd.clear();

      lcd.setCursor(,);

      lcd.print(“Rate: “);

      lcd.print(l_minute);

      lcd.print(” L/M”);

      l_minute=l_minute/60;

      lcd.setCursor(,1);

      vol=vol l_minute;

      lcd.print(“Vol:”);

      lcd.print(vol);

      lcd.print(” L”);

      flow_frequency=;// Reset Counter

      Serial.print(l_minute,DEC);// Print litres/hour

      Serial.println(” L/Sec”);

        }

Далее после оператора else работает код, если за прошедшую секунду не поступало никаких импульсов от датчика расхода воды.

    else{

      lcd.clear();

      lcd.setCursor(,);

      lcd.print(“Rate: “);

      lcd.print(flow_frequency);

      lcd.print(” L/M”);

      lcd.setCursor(,1);

      lcd.print(“Vol:”);

      lcd.print(vol);

      lcd.print(” L”);

    }

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